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世界宗教领袖联盟大会:道教传统 世界玄同
2016-10-12 16:20:20

2016年9月11日——15日期间,中国道教协会副会长、海南省道教协会会长、海南玉蟾宫住持陆文荣道长出席世界宗教领袖联盟“宗教与文明”大会,在会议议程中陆文荣道长作了“道教传统 世界玄同”的主旨发言,并于举办地——以色列受到以色列总统、总理的亲切接见。

A speech by Lu Wenrong, Vice President of Chinese Taoist Association, President of the Taoist Association of Hai nan Province,Abbot of Yuchan Gong Temple, Hainan, PRC.


文/陆文荣


尊敬的世界宗教领袖联盟大会巴瓦简恩秘书长及各位女士,先生们:

Respected Chairman,ladies and gentlemen


我来自亚洲东南部美丽的海南岛,我信仰历史悠久而且在当代依然充满精神活力的道教。受邀参加这次“亚洲宗教领袖会议”,有机会聆听宗教领袖们本着各自的传统以思考当代社会问题的真知灼见,深感荣幸!从会议有益的交流和相互启发中,我既深切感受到不同宗教传统各自表述的魅力,也感受到面对同一个时代现实的共同关切,感受到维护友善的自然环境以及淑世和平的共同愿景。这样的会议感受,与我的道教信仰是吻合的,所以对于这次会议,我的内心充满愉悦。

A traditional religion rooted in the ancient history of China, Taoism yet remains in step with the spirit of this conference throughout. On the one hand, deeply concerned for the reality of a society sometimes full of conflict and violence; and on the other hand, resolutely dedicated to pursuing the ideal of Natural Unity that results in harmony between people and between humankind and nature.


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陆文荣会长向以色列总统鲁文·里夫林赠送礼物。(资料图)


文明最本质的含义


作为中国源远流长的传统宗教,道教始终呈现出与这次会议相一致的内在精神,即一方面关切充满纷争和冲突的现实社会,另一方面又锲而不舍地追求人与人、人与自然相和谐的“玄同”理想。千百年来,从我们的修道前辈到今天的同道教友,无不遵循《道德经》的谆谆教诲,“挫其锐,解其纷,和其光,同其尘,是谓玄同”。挫锐解纷、和光同尘的祖师垂训,引导我们以超越现实的眼界关注现实,探寻化解现实纷争的可能途径,而理想中“玄同”的和谐世界,就从纷争得以化解的现实世界脱胎而出,像蝉蜕一样,超越旧躯壳,重获新生。在我们的信仰中,从现实向理想升华不仅是应当的,而且是可能的,是大家朝着共同的方向通过共同努力就可以实现的。

For over a thousand years, from our predecessors in Taoist cultivation to our Taoist brethren of today, we have been following the earnest teachings of the Daodejing, which says, “Blunt the sharpness; Untangle the knots; Soften the glare; Let your wheels move only along old ruts. This is known as Natural Unity.” Blunting sharpness and untangling knots, softening the glare and raising no dust - this teaching passed down from our Ancestral Master encourages us to look upon reality with a gaze that transcends it, seeking possible ways to dissolve conflict. The ideal of the harmonious world of Natural Unity springs forth from the resolved conflicts of the real world, like a cicada shedding its old skin, and gaining new life. In our religion, transcendence from the everyday to the ideal is not only an obligation, it is seen as a genuine possibility, made possible by our combined efforts directed towards a common goal.


我们知道,我们都生活在同一个世界里,而且也只能生活在同一个世界里。这个不言而喻的事实,造就了人类特有的文明张力,即一方面,由于我们只能生活在同一个世界,所以时常会围绕生活资源、生存空间等等,发生摩擦、纷争甚至冲突,相对于我们所需要的资源和空间而言,世界似乎太小了;另一方面,同样由于我们只能生活在同一个世界里,自己不可能逃离这个世界,他人也不可能被排挤出这个世界,所以我们必须找到一个超越纷争、化解冲突的相处之道,发挥人类智慧和愿力的独特作用,让生存和生活的世界就地放大。所以只要我们关注这个现实的世界,我们就必然会发现,纷争乃至针锋相对的冲突,随时随地都可能存在,而我们所当做出的选择,就是收敛自我意志的光芒,尊重万物形态和性格各有差异的存在状态,通过寻求和解的不懈努力,朝着“玄同”的目标,化解纷争和冲突的层层纠结。也正是在这个意义上,我们能够深入理解,人类其实是一个命运共同体,而所谓文明,最本质的含义应该就是不断建构并且完善这样的相处之道。

We know that we live in the same world, and can only live in the same world. This fact that usually goes without saying gives rise to the tension of civilization unique to humankind. On the one hand, because we can only live together in the same world, problems may occur around the issues of resources, territory and so on, conflict and even violence arises. Sometimes it seems as if there is not enough resources and space to go around to meet the needs of humankind, as if the world were too small for us. On the other hand, also because we can only live together in the same world, one cannot ever leave it, and neither can anyone else be pushed off of it, and so we needs must find some way to co-exist, we must transcend the urge towards conflict and violence. Doing so allows the brilliance of human ingenuity and willpower that is unique to us to shine through, the world grows in its capacity for existence and life. Therefore, as long as we are concerned with the real world, we will necessarily find that the existence of conflict and violence that leads people to point weapons at each other is a constant and ubiquitous possibility. The choice that we must make is to withdraw the beams of our ambition, to respect the different states of existence and characters of all things. By dedicating ourselves tirelessly to finding ways to make peace, heading towards a goal of achieving a state of Natural Unity, to resolve the complex layers of conflict and violence. It is only in this sense that we can truly understand that humankind has a shared fate, and the most essential meaning of civilization should be to constantly work towards building and improving ways of coexistence.


为了建构人与人的相处之道,人类发明了许多卓有成效的方式方法——科学技术像是生活资源的增值器、生存空间的扩大器,不断纾解资源和空间的紧张;而法律、政治等等,则从建构秩序的角度朗现出相处之道的价值,一个法律和政治秩序良好的社会共同体,可以有效地管控纷争和冲突,资源和空间可以得到合理的利用。然而,我们同时也能充分理解,能够发挥这些作用的科学技术和法律、政治等等,都带有工具理性的特质,既可以用来兴善,也可能用于作恶。例如科学技术,许多成果都被用来增进民生福利,但也有些只是杀人的利器;法律和政治也同样,尽管在大多数时候、大多数情况下,良法善政都能发挥建构社会秩序的作用,但同时也不可否认,在人类历史上,法律和政治曾经被作为撬动利益的杠杆,导致社会整体性的利益倾斜,给人类造成许多困扰。正是这些文明史上的经验和教训,让我们越来越强烈地意识到,在所有这些工具理性的前面,我们需要有一盏价值理性的引路明灯,让我们能够衡量工具理性为何而用,又如何使用。而宗教信仰,在历史上正是被作为价值理性的引路明灯得以传播的。所以站在历史的视角来看,当代是历史的延续,当代宗教所秉承的历史使命,正如这次会议所呈现出来的,是传承并且传播价值理性。

Humankind has invented many excellent methods to finding ways of coexistence – science and technology increases the value of resources, expands the space that we live in and constantly relieves the tensions of resources and space. Law and politics, by establishing order, have their own value in revealing a way of coexistence; a shared community with effective law and order can effectively control conflict and violence, and allow resources and space to be sensibly used. However, at the same time we are very clear that these methods – science and technology, law and order, that could be used for such means, have the characteristics of instrumental reason, they can be used for good or for evil. For example, science and technology, which in many cases is used for the good of humankind, is yet occasionally used to create weapons that bring destruction. Even though law and order, in the vast proportion of situations and times brings order to human society, it cannot be denied that at some points in history, law and politics have been used as an axle by which to skew the fortunes of the whole of society, leading to many problems. These lessons and experiences from the history of civilization ought to make us ever more convinced that before the instrumental reason of such tools, it is necessary for there to be a bright, guiding light of rational values to show us the way, so that we may consider how these tools should be used and to what ends. Religious conviction has been passed down throughout history as just such a guiding light of substantive rationality. Therefore, from a historic point of view, the present day is a continuation of history, the responsibility and meaning passed on to religion in the present day should be to, as this conference shows, pass on and spread afar substantive rationality.


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陆文荣会长与以色列总理内塔尼亚胡、中国佛教协会会长学诚法师等合影留念


培护人类命运共同体的方向性选择


就我的道教信仰而言,传承价值理性以探寻化解现实纷争的道路,首先意味着要充分认识到人类其实是一个命运共同体,其次意味着要培护人类命运共同体,应然的方向性选择是“玄同”,而不是竞争逻辑下的征服。

As for my own Taoist religious beliefs, inheriting substantive rationality and seeking ways to resolve conflict means, in the first place, being fully aware of the shared fate of humankind, and secondly encouraging that common fate, the direction we choose is that of Natural Unity, rather than seeking to conquer through the logic of competition.


从情感上体会人类命运共同体,应该不是一件很复杂的事。中国古代有一句老话,“人同此心,心同此理”。同情之心、恻隐之心,在中国的文化传统里被认为是人类的天性,一个人只要还保留着这份天性,自然就会对人类命运共同体产生共鸣。而从理论上理解人类命运共同体,则有各种宗教传统为我们提供异常丰富的思想资源,陶铸我们的天性和情感,升华为稳固的理念。《道德经》的第三十四章,就表达出道教的这个理念,“大道泛兮,其可左右。万物恃之以生而不辞,功成而不名有。爱养万物而不为主,常无欲,可名于小;万物归之而不为主,可名于大”。这是开启我们信仰的古典表述之一,而从那个古典的时代开始,我们就一直坚信,宇宙万物的造化,贯穿着大道的生生不息之意。虽然天地斡旋、星移斗转、日月循环,浩渺宇宙的一切似乎都只是庞大机器的自行运转,但在我们的信仰世界里,天地星辰之所以能运转,是因为它们秉承了阴阳所缔构的合力与张力;天地星辰之所以要运转,是因为阴阳所缔构的合力与张力蕴涵着造化的生机,而生命正是宇宙生机的成果。本着这样的信仰来理解,不仅人类是一个命运共同体,而且日月星辰、天地万物也与人类是一个共同体,所以中国古代的贤哲张载概括说,“民吾同胞,物吾与也”。

It is not a complex matter to perceive the common fate of humankind from an emotional perspective. There is an ancient Chinese saying that goes, “We all share the same heart, and the heart shares the same principles”. The heart that is sympathetic, empathetic, has been traditionally viewed in China as the part of human nature endowed by Heaven, their celestial nature. As long as a person can preserve this celestial nature, they will naturally resonate with the shared fate of humankind. Theoretically speaking, on the matter of the communal fate of humankind, various religious traditions offer us amazingly rich and diverse resources to consider, forging our celestial nature and emotions, raising it up to become a solid idea. The Thirty-fourth chapter of the Daodejing expresses this idea in Taoist terms, “The way is broad, reaching left as well as right. The myriad creatures depend on it for life yet it claims no authority. It accomplishes its task yet lays claim to no merit. It clothes and feeds the myriad creatures yet lays no claim to being their master. For ever free of desire, it can be called small; Yet as it lays no claim to being master when the myriad creatures turn to it, it can be called great.”This is an expression from a classic text that inspires our faith, ever since those ancient times, we have maintained the steady belief that the creative power of the Great Tao moves ceaselessly through the creation of the ten thousand things. Regardless of the revolution of the Earth, the rotation of the stars, the cycles of sun and moon…the motions of every kind in the vast universe seem like the parts of a great clockwork movement, but for those of us with religious beliefs, the reason for the movement of the planet and stars is that they have received the energies of Yin and Yang that form a state of mutual attraction and tension. The reason that the planets and stars rotate is that the attraction and tension between Yin and Yang holds within it the potential for creation and life, whilst life itself is a product of the creative potential of the universe. Setting out from this religious perspective, not only does humankind have a shared fate, in fact we are enjoined in a shared fate with the sun, the moon, the stars, Heaven and Earth, all things on this planet including ourselves! Hence, the ancient sage of China, Zhang Zai, said, “All men are my brothers, and all other creations too”.


既然人类都是同胞,万物与我一体,那么对于建构或者培护人类命运共同体,在情感和理智上就应该没有任何障碍。然而现实是,人类自身的纷争和冲突无处不在,对于如何建构命运共同体以克服这些纷争和冲突,在基本思路上也存在微妙却又影响深远的差异。甄辨这些差异,见微而知著,或许正是思想对话的魅力之所在,也是建构人类命运共同体所不可或缺的一门功课。

Seeing that all of humanity are our brothers and sisters, and all things in creation are as one with us, we find no impediment to understanding the establishment and protection of our shared human fate whether in terms of emotional or theoretical aspects. Whilst the truth is that the conflict and violence that exists within the human race is ubiquitous. In terms of establishing and protecting our shared fate, this disparity between the ideal and reality has a subtle yet meaningful implication. Observing such disparity, and inferring the greater picture from a detail, may perhaps be the attraction of considered dialogue, and an essential lesson in establishing the shared fate of humankind.


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追求普世性,无疑是我们道教的信仰和精神方向,而真正的普世性,只能从“以天下观天下”的广袤视野中得来。


“以天下观天下”:儒道之异同


在中国的文明史上,儒家和道家始终相伴而行,思想理论上可以相互补充,在汉语世界里,习惯上就称作“儒道互补”。然而,围绕如何建构人类命运共同体的问题,儒道两家却包含着微妙的差异。儒家的经典《大学》里说,要达到“平天下”也就是建构人类命运共同体的崇高境界,就要从正心诚意的个人修养开始,唯其出发点是端正而且真诚的,“平天下”的目标和道路才不会被扭曲,如果“其所令反其所好”,向外的号召与内在的观念自相矛盾,则无论如何号召,“而民不从”,号召本身还会演变成社会对抗的缘由。以正心诚意的个人修养为基础,然后可以齐家、治国、平天下。无疑,这是一条与武力征服截然不同的道德推广之路,不同之处主要有两点,第一是仁爱的美德不同于残酷的暴力,第二是推广仁爱的美德需要尊重社会固有的结构和秩序,包括个人、家庭、国家、世界等等,而武力征服者只依据纯粹地理的版图,对社会固有的结构和秩序往往是无视的。

In the history of Chinese civilization, the two traditions of the Confucians and the Taoists has gone hand in hand, in terms of theory and thought they act each to make up for the other’s deficiencies, which in Chinese is customarily called “Confucians and Taoists helping each other out”. However, on the matter of how to establish the shared fate of humanity, the two schools of thought hold subtly different opinions. The Confucian Classic, The Great Learning, says that if one wishes to bring peace to the world, that is to realize the lofty state of the shared fate of humankind, one must begin with earnest personal cultivation. Only if the starting point is approached earnestly and with genuine commitment will the path and its goal be reached directly without straying off track. If “the orders do not agree with one’s preferences”, that is that the call to action is at odds with internal ideas, no matter how loudly the call to action is made, “the people will not follow it”, in that case, the call to action may well instead become a cause for social revolt. One should begin with earnest personal cultivation as a basis, and gradually bring order to one’s family, one’s country, and the whole world. Doubtlessly, this is a means of ethical conversion very different to conquest by military power. There are two differences, the first being that benevolent love and virtue are very different to cruel violence; the second being that promoting benevolence and virtue requires people to respect the existing structure and order of society, including personal, familial, national and global concerns. To conquer by martial power is to rely only on the drawing up of domains, usually with no concern for the established structure and order of society.


是采取武力征服还是采取美德推广的方式来建构社会共同体,或许就是文明与野蛮的分道扬镳之处,而儒家崇尚仁爱的美德,事实上也代表了中华文明的一个极重要品格。然而,儒家将个人的道德修养作为基本模式,通过以点带面的不断推广来建构社会共同体,在理论上也存在一个将特殊感受当成普遍原则的问题。何以见得个人的道德修养就一定具有普世的适应性?何以见得个人的道德修养就一定能够顺理成章地引导家庭、国家乃至世界的道德建设?对于这些问题,儒家或许不容易回答。

Whether to adopt the strategy of conquering through military power or by promoting virtue to realize the shared fate of humankind may perhaps be the point at which civilization and savagery part ways. The Confucian preference for benevolence and virtue in fact represents an essential character of Chinese civilization. However, the Confucian tradition takes personal ethical cultivation as the basis from which the whole of society may be gradually influenced, this entails the issue of taking specific experiences as universal principles. How can we know that personal ethical cultivation can influence and be suited to the whole world? How can we know that it will naturally lead to the realization of these ethics on a familial, national and global scale? These may be questions that the Confucians find it difficult to answer.


道家的思路,应该能够帮助儒家规避这些问题。如《道德经》第五十四章说,“修之身,其德乃真。修之家,其德乃余。修之乡,其德乃长。修之国,其德乃丰。修之天下,其德乃普。故以身观身,以家观家,以乡观乡,以国观国,以天下观天下。吾何以知天下之然?以此”。从个人、家庭、乡里到国家、世界,道家同样尊重社会固有的结构和秩序,而且同样以道德修养为基础,但道家所选择的,不是将特殊的道德修养推广、扩散为普世的道德模式,而是从个人真实的道德感悟出发,向家庭、乡里、国家、世界寻求印证。如果个人所感受到的道德能够得到家庭或者家族的验证,那就表明这个道德还有余裕,不那么狭隘;如果放到乡里也能得到验证,那就表明这个道德可以延伸,不那么短促;如果放到一国里还能得到验证,那就表明这个道德是丰富的,不那么局碍;如果放到全天下里仍然能够得到验证,那就表明这个道德是普世的,与天下所指称的全社会共同体具有适应性。正因为有这样一个普世适应性的德,所以才会有“天下”那样一个概念,“吾何以知天下之然?以此”。否则,人与人有许多不同,地域与地域有许多不同,每个人、每个地域都是自带着许多“特殊情况”的,“天下”概念从何而来?

The Taoist approach can help the Confucian tradition resolve these problems. Chapter Fifty-four of the Daodejing says, “Cultivate it in your person and its virtue will be genuine; Cultivate it in the family and its virtue will be more than sufficient; Cultivate it in the hamlet and its virtue will endure; Cultivate it in the state and its virtue will abound; Cultivate it in the empire and its virtue will be pervasive. Hence look at the person through the person; Look at the family through the family; Look at the hamlet through the hamlet; Look at the state through the state; Look at the empire through the empire. How do I know that the empire is like that?By means of this. ”From the personal, to the familial, from the local to the national and on to the global scale, Taoists also respect the established structure and order of society. We also perceive ethical cultivation to be a basic requirement. However, the Taoist approach is not to promote specific means of ethical cultivation as a universal mode of ethics, but rather to begin with a person’s true interpretation of ethics, and to seek evidence of it at each level of society. If the ethics that one perceives can also be evidenced at the level of immediate and distant family, it goes to show that it is effective and not limited to the one level of society; if it can be evidenced at a local level, it goes to show that that system of ethics can be carried on and will not be short-lived; if it can be evidenced at a national level, it goes to show that the ethics are rich and not restricted; and if they may be evidenced on a global scale, it goes to show that that system of ethics is universal, and applicable to the global society as a whole. The existence of a virtue that is universally applicable allows us to form the idea of “all under Heaven”. As the classic says, “How do I know that the empire is like that? By means of this.” Otherwise, based upon the many disparities between different people and their different environments, if everyone had special circumstances, how would we come to conceive of the idea of the entire world?


追求普世性,无疑是我们道教的信仰和精神方向,而真正的普世性,只能从“以天下观天下”的广袤视野中得来。当我们以世界的眼界来观摩世界,而不以小我的独特视角来揣测世界时,人类作为一个命运共同体,或许就能在“玄同”的意义上朗现出来。

Seeking after the universal is undoubtedly the direction of the Taoist faith and spirit. And the truly universal can only be discovered from the vast perspective of observing the world by observing the world. When we look at the world through the world, rather than from the specific perspective of the individual, we find that the humankind has a shared fate, in the sense of Natural Unity.


“玄同”是超越小我局碍的大化境界,在这个境界里,人人都可以像《庄子·逍遥游》里的鲲鹏一样,在天地之间逍遥遨游,而不必学习斥鷃,在狭隘的树丛里穿梭却要嘲笑鲲鹏一飞必须九万里。道家的先贤庄子在这个脍炙人口的寓言里说,“夫知效一官,行比一乡,德合一君而征一国者,其自视也,亦若此矣”。不能放开狭隘胸襟和眼量的人之所以像斥鷃一样,关键不在于斥鷃有没有一飞九万里的能力,而在于能否理解并且欣赏世界应该具有的本来面貌——逍遥,也就是人人都能自由自在地生活在和谐而有序的社会共同体中。

Natural Unity means to transcend the limiting restrictions of the individual and see the greater world. In this state each of us can become like the magical creatures in Zhuangzi’s Free and Easy Wandering chapter, the giant fish and the giant bird that wander freely and easily about Heaven and Earth, we need not be distracted by the smaller creatures, who remain in their small forests and laugh at those who travel further than they ever will. Zhuangzi, the ancient Sage of Taoism created this popular fable and said, “Therefore a man who has wisdom enough to fill one office effectively, good conduct enough to impress one community, virtue enough to please one ruler, or talent enough to be called into service in one state, has the same kind of self-pride as these little creatures.” Those who cannot put aside their own limits are like the small creatures in the fable, who at the end of the day are unable to fly like the giant bird, and moreover are unable to understand and appreciate the original state of the world – freedom and ease, that is a shared community of harmony and order, wherein each of us can live freely.


“玄同”境界不排斥物质文明的自然发展,但也不依赖物质文明的苛刻条件。《庄子·山木》里讲述了这样一个引人遐思的故事,说是在中国的南部有一个“建德之国”,那里的民众很淳朴,少私而寡欲,只知劳作却不知私藏,知道给予却不求回报,没有太多的是非讲究,也没有什么禁忌束缚,行为都自由自在,却又合乎“道”的规范,“与道相辅而行”。我学习道教并且常住的海南玉蟾宫也在中国南部,所以玉蟾宫的道友们一直在追慕“建德之国”的遗风,以此继承道教的传统,守望“玄同”世界的到来。

The state of Natural Unity does not deny the natural development of material civilization, but it also does not rely on its strict conditions. The Mountains and Trees chapter of the Zhuangzi contains another thought-provoking story. It goes that in the South of China there was a country built upon virtue The people who lived there were simple and honest, their selfish desires were few; they worked and did not keep their rewards to themselves, they gave without expecting anything in return; they did not think much about right and wrong, and did not have any particular restrictions or taboos, they acted freely and yet within the bounds of the Tao, supporting the Tao in their actions. I learned what I know of Taoism, and live at Yuchan Gong Temple in Hainan, which is also in the South of China. All of us Taoist brethren there seek to inherit the spirit of the kingdom built upon virtue, inheriting the traditions of the Taoist religion and waiting for the coming of the world of Natural Unity.


借此机会,我也诚恳邀请各位宗教领袖在方便的时候,到海南玉蟾宫做客。谢谢!

I would like to take this opportunity to sincerely invite each religious leader present to visit Yuchan Gong temple as our guest at their convenience. Thank you!


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